Genetic analysis (chromosome/ Karyotype analysis): Blood samples should be taken from man and woman and tested for some probable abnormalities in the chromosomes, (missing chromosomes or additions to each chromosome, and translocations of chromosomes (in which all chromosomes are present but in different locations).
Anti Phospholipid Antibodies (APA) – cardiolipins are proteins found in many cells in your body. They help regulate blood flow throughout the body. However, when your body looks at the cardiolipins as an enemy or invader, it will attack them by creating antibodies . The three main groups anticardiolipins are: IgG, IgM, IgA.
Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA)- cells that attack the nuclei of other cells in your body. This is a mistake made by the body, thinking the good guys are the bad guys. Low levels should cause no problems.
Anti Nuclear Antibodies (ANA)- Again this is your body mistaking the good for the bad. Only this time it attacks the nuclei of the cell(s).
Lupus Anti Coaguant (LA)- This is a protein in your blood that causes it to clot in your bloodstream and veins differently than it normally would. To test for this there are actually several tests compiled and then looked at as a whole. These tests are the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), the Modified Russel Viper Venom Time (VPTT), the Platelet
Neutralization Procedure (PNP), and the Kaolin Clotting Time (KCT). The typical treatment for this is baby aspirin, prednisone, and heparin/low molecular weight heparins.
Anti Thyroglobulin Antibodies (ATA) – Thyroglobulin is the protein that connects with the thyroid, which produces different types of hormones. Antithyroglobulin is usually found with antimicrosomal antibody in the bloodstream. These two antibodies together, attack the thyroid gland and also may couse pregnancy loss.
- Normal/ Negative Results: levels less than 1:72
- Borderline Results: levels between 1:72 and 1:300.
- Abnormal/ Positive Results: levels higher than 1:300
Further testing is usually required to rule out other issues and is then treated with prednisone and dexamethasone.
If all the tests done are found as normal, then you should think about the possiblity of fetal factors. Actually pregnancy loss may be caused by a maternal factor or a fetal factor.
Until now, most investigations and treatment have concerned maternal factors causing pregnancy loss or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is the only strategy available to prevent loss due to aneuploidy( genetic abnormality) of the fetus. While it is difficult to measure the true incidence of aneuploid fetuses in RPL, various investigations in which the abortus has been analyzed have quoted that 25–60% of recurrent miscarriages may be caused by embryonic chromosomal aberrations. Thus, aneuploid miscarriages account for a significant number of pregnancy losses. Hence, the use of PGD may be appropriate for this significant subgroup of patients with RPL.
In our Centre, PGD is performed for the embryos where for different indications.
Please go to our page pgd for more information on this subject.